The commemorative stelae of Nahr el-Kalb are a group of over 20 inscriptions carved into the limestone rocks around the estuary of the Nahr el Kalb (Dog River) in Lebanon, just north of Beirut.
The inscriptions include three Egyptian hieroglyphic stelae from Pharaohs including Ramesses II, six Cuneiform inscriptions from Neo Assyrian and Neo Babylonian kings including Esarhadon and Nebuchadnezzar, Roman and Greek inscriptions, Arabic inscriptions from the Mamluk sultan Barquq and the Druze prince Fakhr el Din II a memorial to Napoleon III’s 1860 intervention in Lebanon and a dedication to the 1943 independence of Lebanon from France. As such, the site has been said to summarise all of Lebanon’s history in one place.
The earliest European to identify the site was the 17th century traveller Henry Maundrell in 1697,andFranz Heinrich Weissbach was the first editor of the inscriptions in 1922.
In 2005, the stelae at the river were listed in the Unesco Memory of the World initiative.
Those stelae “sum up the entire history of Lebanon, from High Antiquity to the present, evoking clearly the successive advances of the Pharaonic, Assyro-Babylonian, Greek, Roman, Arab, French and British armies which braved all the obstacles surrounding this difficult and very steep crossing point to carve commemorative stelae on the rocks.